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Antimicrobial: An agent which kills microbes, or inhibits their development and ability to cause disease.

Antioxidant: Man-made or natural substances which prevent or delay certain types of cell damage caused by free radicals.

Antiviral: An agent which kills viruses, or inhibits their development and ability to spread.

Antibacterial: An agent which kills bacteria, or inhibits their development and ability to reproduce.

Anti-Inflammatory: A substance or treatment which reduces inflammation/swelling and redness.

Anaesthetic: A substance which reduces sensations of pain. The word anaesthesia is derived from the Greek words for 'without' an and 'sensation' aisthēsis.


Blisters: A small bubble on the skin, filled with air or fluid. These are caused by friction, burns, or infection.


Chemotherapy: The use of any drugs to treat or control any disease. This term is most commonly used in reference to cancer treatment.

Contaminated: When something has been rendered impure or unclean though being mixed with or being exposed to a poison, pollutant, or another otherwise undesirable agent.

Clinical Trials: When a medical theory or product is tested under planned and monitored conditions in order to improve scientific knowledge and understanding, or assess a treatment's safety and effectiveness.


Dormant: When a living organism's normal functions are suspended or slowed for a period of time, as if sleeping.

Double-Blind Trial: A type of experiment in which neither the participants nor the people administering the experiment are aware of the important aspects of the procedure, such as which individuals will be administered a placebo and which an active drug. Keeping participants and administrators 'in the dark' prevents their biases influencing the outcome of the experiment.


Emollient: A liquid, cream, or ointment which reduces the dryness of the skin, softening and soothing it.

Enzymes: A type of protein, produced by all living organisms, which speeds up the chemical reactions inside cells.

Ethanol: A colourless, volatile, flammable substance, fermented from corn, grains, or agricultural waste.


Febrile Illness: Having a fever, or showing symptoms of one. The word 'febrile' comes from the Latin febris meaning 'fever'.

Fermentation: When bacteria, yeast, or another micro-organism chemically breaks down a substance.

Food Grade: Certified standards meaning that a product is fit for consumption or allowed to come in contact with food.


Ganglia: The plural of ganglion. A well-defined group of nerve cells forming a structure within the nervous system.


Healing: The process of recovering from an injury or illness.

Herpetic Gingivostomatitis: A painful inflammation of the gums and mouth, which might include sores, caused by the herpes simplex virus. This usually develops in children during the primary infection, but occasionally is experienced by adults. It typically lasts 7-14 days, and sores can take about three weeks to heal.

HSV-1: Herpes simplex virus. Oral herpes which presents itself in the form of blisters around the mouth, also known as cold sores. This should not be confused with HSV-2 (see below).

HSV-2: Herpes simplex virus. Genital herpes which presents itself around the genitalia. Commonly associated with sexually transmitted diseases.


Immunodeficiency: When a person's immune system is compromised (weaker than in healthy individuals), or entirely absent, making it difficult or impossible for the person to fight infectious diseases.

Immune System: A network of cells, tissues and organs within the body which aim to protect the individual from disease.






Latency Stage: When the herpes simplex virus lies dormant and there aren't any symptoms present. For some individuals, the latency stage will be permanent and they will not develop cold sores. For others, the latency stage will be interrupted and they will experience outbreaks throughout their lives.

Lesion: A blister, wound, or ulcer.


Microbiological Contamination: The non-intended or accidental introduction of infectious material or by-product into a substance.




Ointment: An ointment is traditionally a thick, viscous substance which users will apply onto the skin for medicinal or cosmetic purposes.


Placebo: A placebo is a type of medical treatment which carries no practical benefits. In some situations, those given this form of healthcare will believe that their ailments have actually improved. When this occurs, it is often referred to as the "placebo effect".

Propolis ACF: Propolis is an ingredient used in the production of Herstat. However, in order to make it fit for use, trained professionals thoroughly clean this material to remove any impurities and foreign elements. Once it is safe, an extraction and filtration process leads to Propolis ACF – a patented purified Propolis extract.

Preservative: A preservative is a substance which is added to materials, such as food and medicine, to prevent these items from decaying.




Recurring Outbreaks: When symptoms of an infection occur repeatedly, this is known as a recurring outbreak. The rate at which signs will appear often differ between people, with some potentially suffering adverse effects months or even years after their initial outbreak.

Regenerative: A regenerative process is where cells, tissue, or some other part of a living organism can grow or renew itself after suffering damage.


Scabbing: When a wound or sore becomes covered with scabs.

Sterile: When bacteria or other micro-organisms have been cleaned from an object, it is often referred to as being sterile.

Symptoms: A sign or some sort of indication that someone is suffering from a disease, illness, or other health condition.


Trigeminal Ganglion: The trigeminal ganglion is part of the trigeminal nerve which resides between the ear and the eye socket. It is responsible for communicating certain facial sensations such as touch or pressure. After someone has recovered from a cold sore, the herpes virus can remain dormant within this structure.

Treatment: A form of medical care which is used to help someone recover from an injury or illness.

Transparent: If it is possible to see something through an item, this material is often regarded as being transparent.


Ulcers: An ulcer is an open sore which can either develop on the surface of the skin or inside the body. Typically, these lesions resemble small craters.

UVA: About 95% of the UV radiation which reaches our planet's surface is made up of UVA rays. Originating from the sun, being exposed to excessive amounts can cause skin damage. In some situations, UVA rays could even lead to cancer.

UVB: Also originating from the sun, UVB rays have the potential to redden the skin and cause sunburn.


Virus: A virus is an infectious micro-organism which can be transmitted between living creatures. Once this occurs, it could multiply within the host – potentially causing a range of health problems.


White Soft Paraffin: White soft paraffin is often available in ointment format and applied to the skin when the surface is dry, rough, or itchy. Once rubbed onto the affected area, it should help relieve symptoms.

Wool Fat (Lanolin): Originally produced by sheep, lanolin can be extracted from these animals and used as an ingredient in moisturiser.